Glossary and Charts


Intestinal microbiome test

The intestinal microbiome test is a method to estimate the composition of bacteria (flora) species living mainly in the intestinal tract by reading the nucleotide sequence of the part containing the genetic information (16S rRNA gene) of the microorganisms in the feces using the latest genetic analysis device called a next-generation sequencer and comparing it with a bacterial group classification database. This test is a method of estimating the composition of bacteria species inhabiting the intestinal tract and is not intended to medically diagnose the subject’s health condition.

Intestinal flora transplant

An intestinal flora transplant refers to the transfer of intestinal bacteria obtained from the stools of a healthy person to the patient’s intestines in order to restore the balance of the intestinal flora that has collapsed. (Scientific name: fecal microbiota transplantation, FMT) Transplantation of intestinal flora is often performed after an intestinal microbiome test is performed.

Bacterial liquid

Bacterial liquid is a solution of stools provided by the donor bank Japanbiome for transplantation of intestinal flora suspended in an appropriate solvent. In intestinal flora transplants, this bacterial solution is transplanted directly into the patient’s intestine. The solvent used here is NanoGAS® water, described below.

NanoGAS® water

NanoGAS® water is “special water” that contains invisible microscopic bubbles and is used for the transplantation of intestinal bacteria (flora).
In the transplantation of intestinal bacteria (flora), NanoGAS® water effectively settles other people’s intestinal bacteria that might otherwise be blocked by autoimmune functions such as IgA (immunoglobulin A). This is made possible by the characteristics of the fine bubbles in NanoGAS® water.

Stool bank

A stool bank is an organization that aims to provide medical institutions with safe donor stool for stool transplants. By sharing donor stool among multiple medical institutions through a stool bank, a more efficient and stable supply of safe donor stool is possible.


Japanbiome is the only private donor bank in Japan for intestinal flora transplants.
All Japanbiome donors are volunteers who have passed strict testing standards and continue to pass regular lifestyle and strict medical interviews in addition to blood and stool tests.
All Japanbiome donors are volunteers who have passed strict testing standards and continue to pass regular lifestyle and strict medical interviews in addition to blood and stool tests. Japanbiome aims to facilitate the selection of ideal donors on a patient-by-patient and symptom-by-symptom basis through individual and statistical analysis of patients’ conditions (shared in real time by clinicians) and analysis of donors’ daily lifestyle surveys and blood, urine, and stool tests.


“Rebound” in intestinal flora transplants refers to the patient’s immune system becoming temporarily confused when it recognizes the difference between the intestinal bacteria of others and the patient’s own intestinal bacteria. “Rebound” in this case has a different meaning than “rebound” in dieting.
The immune systems of young people, especially those around the age of 17 and 18, have a high ability to learn. So they often experience waves of physical symptoms due to rebound until the new intestinal flora balance becomes their own (settles in). This is also a sign that the transplanted intestinal bacteria have reached the intestinal tract properly. By performing multiple transplants in a short period of time and in a well-planned manner, changes in physical condition due to rebound are less likely to occur.

Ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis is a general term for a disease of unknown cause that results in chronic inflammation or ulceration of the mucosa of the large intestine. Characteristic symptoms are diarrhea with or without bloody stools and abdominal pain. The cause of the disease is not yet known in detail, but it is thought to be related to intestinal bacteria, dietary changes, or an autoimmune reaction that causes the immune system’s normal protection against external enemies to malfunction.

Irritable bowel syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome is a syndrome that causes chronic complaints of bloating, abdominal pain and abnormal bowel movements such as diarrhea and constipation despite the absence of inflammation, ulceration or endocrine abnormalities in the intestines on normal examination. It is thought to be caused by some kind of hypersensitivity of the visceral nerves in the intestines.

Autism spectrum disorder

Autism spectrum disorder is a natural brain dysfunction caused by a complex combination of many genetic factors and is estimated to affect as many as 1% of the population. The severity of the disorder varies, but it is said that language and communication deficits are often observed, including language delays, echoic language (parroting), an inability to establish relationships with others, inability to hold an conversation, and formal and literal language.


An allergy is a condition in which the immune system overreacts to certain foreign substances (e.g., dust mites, cedar pollen, food), causing symptoms in the body through immunological mechanisms.


Constipation is basically the absence of a bowel movement for more than 72 hours. There may be infrequent bowel movements, pain or bleeding when passing stools, or discomfort in the abdomen. Common symptoms include decreased frequency of bowel movements, residual stools, abdominal pain, bloating, and loss of appetite. However, the frequency of bowel movements varies from person to person, and if a person does not feel pain during bowel movements, it is not called constipation, but if a person has “difficulty in defecating” even if he or she has a bowel movement every day, it is called constipation syndrome.

Autonomic ataxia

Autonomic ataxia refers to a variety of symptoms resulting from an imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nerves caused by stress or other factors. The autonomic nervous system is divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, which perform opposite roles to regulate the state of the body while maintaining a balance between them. However, when the autonomic nervous system is out of balance, there may be systemic symptoms (tiredness, sleeplessness, fatigue, etc.), organ symptoms (headaches, motility, shortness of breath, dizziness, lightheadedness, dizziness, diarrhea, constipation, colds, etc.), and mental symptoms (emotional instability, irritability, anxiety, depression, etc.).

Adverse Events and side effects

An adverse event is any worsening of the patient’s health that is observed after a new treatment is administered to the patient. Adverse events and side effects are quite different. Adverse events have no causal relationship to the treatment, while side effects are causally related to the treatment and its effects.


The safety and efficacy of NanoGAS®-FMT vs. conventional FMT

The safety and efficacy of NanoGAS®-FMT vs. conventional FMT

Grading and evaluation criteria

  2. No medication before or after transplant
  3. Prescription for preventive purposes, etc.
  4. A single dose of medication before transplant (easy)
  5. Long-term medication before transplant (easy)
  6. A single dose of medication before transplant (pain)
  7. Long-term medication before transplant (pain)
  2. No laxatives administered
  3. Laxative after transplant (easy)
  4. Laxative before transplantation (easy)
  5. Laxative after transplantation (pain)
  6. Laxative before transplantation (pain)
  7. Laxative before and after transplantation
  2. Can’t move for about 5 min., rubber bowel catheter (easy)
  3. Can’t move for about 10 min., rubber intestinal catheter (pain)
  4. Pain of swallowing many large capsules (easy)
  5. Pain of swallowing many large capsules (pain)
  6. Can’t move for about 30 min., colonoscopy, etc. (pain)
  7. Can’t move for about 60 min., colonoscopy, etc. (pain)
  2. No anxiety or nervousness, like IV infusion at outpatient clinic
  3. Like IV at outpatient setting, but somewhat anxious and nervous
  4. No special room, no tension
  5. No special room, but nervous
  6. Same anxiety and special room as surgery, but no tension.
  7. Same anxiety, tension and special room as surgery
  2. Very effective
  3. Moderately effective
  4. Slightly effective
  5. No effect (but others see an obvious change)
  6. No effect (but others see a small change)
  7. No effect
  2. Over two years
  3. Over a year
  4. Over six months
  5. Several months
  6. Several weeks
  7. A few days

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