In this issue, we introduce Yoichiro Oka, Senior Research Scientist at Symbiosis Laboratories.
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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF FMT IN MICE WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS
The development of gene-level analysis technology has led to the elucidation of the relationship between intestinal microbiota and diseases, and it is now pointed out that there is a relationship not only between intestinal infections but also obesity, allergies, asthma, and autism due to disorganization and reduced diversity (dysbiosis) of the intestinal flora.
Therefore, one of the treatment methods that have attracted attention is fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), in which healthy human feces are transplanted into the intestinal tract.
Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which blood glucose levels remain high due to insufficient secretion of insulin, a hormone that lowers blood glucose, or problems with its qualitative effects. In order to maintain blood glucose levels in the healthy range, insulin supplementation from external sources may be required several times a day, which is a source of great stress for diabetes sufferers. On the other hand, if blood glucose levels remain high for a long period of time, reactive oxygen species are generated, which can lead to arteriosclerosis or complications in the nerves, eyes, and kidneys, and if the disease progresses and is severe, the patient may require dialysis several times a week.
In order to provide some relief to diabetes patients who sometimes suffer from this painful process, we have reproduced type 1 diabetes in animal experiments (mice) and verified the therapeutic effect of FMT for improving blood glucose levels, and we report some findings.
Japanbiome – Fecal Bank
In July 2019, Japan’s first private fecal bank was established. A fecal bank is a fecal version of a blood center known for blood donations and transfusions.
Blood transfusion is a form of transplant medicine. Other types of transplant medicine include organ, tissue, bone marrow, and cell (iPS cell, etc.) transplantation, and in the act of transplantation, there is a donor (donor) and a recipient (recipient) for each transplant material.
What is important in terms of medical care is whether the quality of life (QOL) is improved before and after the procedure. However, quality of life does not only indicate the range of activities and conditions. It also includes the fact that the patient received something that he or she did not need to receive due to the medical treatment. For example, pathogens that cause infectious diseases. Even if the recipient’s source of disease is improved by the material provided by the donor in the transplantation procedure, the recipient will suffer from the same infectious disease as the donor if the donor has an infectious disease and the donor’s pathogens are mixed in the material and introduced to the recipient.
Japanbiome will present an overview of how we ensure the safety of this highly infectious fecal material provided by donors and supply it to recipients.